The study began in 2004, when Dr. Justin Spencer-Hall started surveying the biota and taking water samples, initially without any funding whatsoever. Neither did the Neanderthals. Or that the existence of humans may be limited. It suggests that El Valle is symptomatic of a larger pattern of extinctions that is a ripple effect from human activity. The social equivalent of that is the breakdown of systems, which doesn't seem like a friendly place to live. When the children were given a hint about where to find a reward... they took it. According to Wikipedia, that's close to Pilottown, LA, which still has its own zip code, but no post office or permanent inhabitants. The apes, once again, were flummoxed... in general, apes seem to lack the impulse toward collective problem-solving that's so central to human society. But there's no alternative. Ms. Kolbert reveals to us that those choices will not only shape our future, but they will shape the entire future of terrestrial life. But acidification, together with a whole list of other human impacts, is putting the world's coral at existential risk. Kolbert will use a similar technique throughout the book, using her investigations into specific species to illuminate her general analysis, and vice versa. (including. In the modern era, amphibians are the world’s most endangered class of animal—they seem to be going extinct at a rate 45,000 times higher than the background rate. Also included are excerpts from interviews of a forest ecologist, atmospheric scientist Ken Caldeira, wildlife and conservation experts, a modern-day geologist, and fungus research in New England and New York state. (That describes nearly every character on the show "Scandal", which we've been watching lately in this household. A little OT, but fascinating and could be useful background: http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/levees/LSU%20Levee%20... What a great question! (Ammonites were a group of highly successful marine molluscs, one of which, Discoscaphites jerseyensis, serves as the totemic species for the chapter). But rhinos are not unique in this, either; most large 'charismatic' mammals such as big cats, bears and elephants are in serious decline. The distinction between “mass extinction” and “background extinction” is crucial to understanding the significance of mass extinction. So valuable to the limited gene pool is the DNA of each individual that Kinohi, an aberrant male who will not breed with his own species, receives, each breeding season, the attentions of a biologist who attempts to harvest his sperm in hopes of using it to artificially inseminate a female Hawaiian crow. Reviewed February 27, 2016. The father of the theory of natural selection first read Lyell at twenty-two, reading Principles of Geology “attentively” during his famous voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Fisheries remove more than a third of the primary production of the oceans' coastal waters. On the one hand, his Origin of the Species denied humanity any special status; wisdom evolved, just as tusks or flippers, in response to natural factors. Numerous species, from Central America to Spain to Australia, fell victim to bd's unstoppable advance. Kolbert explains how fossils of the American mastodon (Mammut americanum) shaped Georges Cuvier's views on catastrophism. Even more heroic have been the efforts on behalf of the whooping crane: Each year, a team of pilots flying ultralight aircraft teaches a new cohort of captive-raised crane chicks how to migrate south for the winter, from Wisconsin to Florida.  Through molecular sequencing, scientists have found that there is one to four percent Neanderthal DNA in all non-African humans. Direct and indirect human effects inspired Dutch Nobelist Paul Crutzen to suggest that the Holocene epoch is over, supplanted by an epoch he terms the “Anthropocene.” In a paper in the journal Nature he noted that: And, of course, we have increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by more than 40%. Here's Kolbert's description of him: Griffith is tall and broad-shouldered, with a round face and a wide smile. Kolbert uses the drastic decline in life forms around the Castello Aragonese as a warning sign of what is to come if we continue to increase carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.. The dynamic could tie back to that notion of the ambiguous protagonist (or maybe antagonist?) It's not clear whether the source was North American bullfrogs, which have been shipped widely as a food item, or African clawed frogs, used around the world, surprisingly, for pregnancy testing. Kolbert points out that there is an evolutionary arms race, in which each species must be equipped to defend against their potential predators, and need to be more fit than their competition. Was that a suggestion that I take a whack at it from the fictional side of things?