Molecular markers can be used to assist establishment of pure breeding lines and check contamination of breeding. Protoplast culture technique itself has an immense potential for crop improvement programme, as the alien gene introduction or incorporation is more easier in this way and transgenic or genetically modified crops can be regenerated. Mutagens can be applied to single cell and the effect can be detected easily, isolated and utilised fully for new variety production through tissue culture. Clonal propagation method used for some heterozygous plants, especially the ornamentals, helps a lot in breeding programme. Molecular marker aided breed­ing strategy involves the potentiality of molecular markers in plant breeding, particularly helps in marker assisted selection procedure which speeds up the whole breeding process. The greatest usefulness of another culture lies in the rapid production of haploid plants which are of great value in plant breeding and genetics. Content Guidelines 2. It also helps in increasing the number of endangered plant species. In vitro gene transfer technique allows transferring desirable genes across taxonomic boundaries into plant from other plants, animals, microbes or any artificial, synthetic or chimeric gene also. In China more than 100 rice varieties developed using the technique to give an increased yield. RFLP microsatellite markers are selected as useful marker for these predictions. The techniques presently rely on natural plant vectors as well as vector-less systems, which include directed physical and chemical methods for delivering foreign DNA into plant cells. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Some of the unique features of molecular markers are: (ii) They show co-dominant inheritance which helps in distinguishing homozygous from heterozygous. A fledgling “biotech” industry began to coalesce in the mid- to late 1970s. It is also helpful in forensics for the identification of criminals, or in paternal disputes. In this process the whole breeding procedure can be conducted in laboratory not waiting for the phenotypic expression in field, e.g., resistance property to plant pathogen can be evaluated in the absence of disease. base for evaluating the application of modern biotechnology in food production. The DNA introduced into majority of the cells is lost with cell division. The aim being to introduce genetic diversity into plant population and to select superior plants carrying the desired traits and to introduce some new characters into the cultivar, with the rapid improvement of genetic engineering tech­niques based on the knowledge of gene structure and function, plant breeding method has been changed. Protoplast fusion, i.e., somatic hybrid production shows a new path to overcome the sexual barrier between distantly related wild and crop plants. Later the term biotechnology was invented meaning industrial application of living cells and combining basic sciences with engineering. Biotechnology Applications In Medicine. In this article we will discuss about the biotechnology in plant breeding. These organisms had their genetic code altered (usually by combining with genes from other organisms), in order to eliminate defects and develop new properties. All these different techniques have been applied in different plant materials using different kinds of genes for many desirable traits of agronomic values e.g., the genes for stress tolerance i.e., drought, salt and temperature stress (physical or abiotic stress); genes for disease resistance such as resistance against any pathogen by producing toxin, PR protein, plantibodies, or RNA mediated resistance gene; herbicide resistance, insect resis­tance; genes for development of male sterile line and also the restorer line; genes for better nutritional quality as in many cereal crops (rice, wheat, maize), oil seed crops (Brassica), pulses and vegetables (potato, tomato); etc. 7.1). (a) Agro-infection or Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer method is widely used with engineered Ti plasmid (modified T-DNA) in case of most dicot plants as well as monocot. This will help to transfer some useful characters like disease resistance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, etc. As an example, we will cite two industrial aspects of modern fermentation biotechnology: first, obtaining biomass from activated sludge, then selection and large-scale propagation of specific strains of Clostridium for the production of acetone and butanol. Survey of rice germplasm using RAPD shows linkage between the presence of specific marker and QTL for novel character.